PARK-MUSEUM OF MILITARY FRIENDSHIP 1444 „VLADISLAV VARNENCHIK”

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History

On 10.11.1444 at the place where at present the Park - museum “Vladyslav Varnenchik”, is situated, happened the famous battle between 20 000 Christian allied European army, led by the Polish-Hungarian King Wladyslaw III Yagello (Varnenchik), with commander-in chief - the Transylvanian ruler Yanosh Huniady and thrice more numerous Turkish armies of Sultan Murad II.

The battle of Varna was the last, the crucial.

After it The Balkans and South- Eastern Europe fell for centuries forward under Ottoman- Turkish domination.

Bulgarians, Hungarians, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Wallachians (today’s Romanians), Ruthanns, (Old-Russians), Croations, Saxons, Lithuanians and a detachment of knights-crusaders of the Roman Pope Eugene IV took part in that last battle.

In their memory, as an expression of honor to their heroism and self-sacrifice in the name of the liberty of Europe was erected the Park-museum of the Combat Friendship “Vladyslav Varnenchik”



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE


Historical information about the campaigns of Vladyslav Varnenchik and Yanosh Huniady in 1443- 1444.

After the conquest of Bulgaria the Turks directed to Hungary which was compelled to find a way of defense. In view of the fact that it was not able to withstand alone against the Turkish pressure, Hungary tried to find rapprochement with the neighbor people and countries – in order to create a coalition able not only to stop, but to push back the conquerors from the Balkans.

On the Hungarian throne was invited and crowned the 16-year-old Polish King Vladyslav III Yagello.

In 1443 in Hungary was organized a campaign against the Turks.

In the strength of the mixed army were concluded - Hungarians, about 500 Polish volunteers (as the country of Poland did not participate in the campaign), Czech Hussist mercenaries (it was not, however, participation of the Czech state), 700 Bosnians,in the lead of Petar Kovachevic (state participation).

The Serbian despot Georgi Brankovic participated with considerable forces (state participation). In the campaign were included Wallachians and German soldiers-mercenaries.

The mixed army crosses Serbia and via Western Bulgaria reached to Zlatitza. Because of the heavy winter, the campaign was stopped.

As a result of the peace treaty, concluded for 10 years, Serbia received a self-government and Hungary – many fortresses at the Danube.

Pope Eugene IV was unsatisfied with this result. He was also the major inspirer of the anti - Turkish movement. His purpose was propagation of the Catholicism in the East. At his insistence his messenger in Hungary –Giuliano Cesarini, liberated King Vladyslav from the taken at the subscription of the treaty oath. A new campaign was prepared.


At the second campaign the mixed army was constituted by:


1. Hungaro-Transylvanian regiments,in the lead of Yanosh Huniady.

2. Polish volunteers - about 300 men

3. Czech mercenaries - Hussists - 400 people. At that time as well Poland and Czechoslovakia did not participate as countries.

4. 4 000 Wallachians also took part, in the lead of Vlad Drakul. This is a state participation.

5.Soldiers from Western Ukraine took part, too. In documents they were called “ruthens”, e.g. “Russians” or “Old -Russians”. Meanwhile the Western Ukrainian lands were included in the borders of the Polish country (there is no information about their exact number).

6. Bulgarian volunteers from the Sub-Danube region took part – from Vidin, Oryahovo, Nikopol and other villages.

7. In the strength of the Hungarian army fought not large number of German settlers from Transylvania as well as Slovaks. (Transylvania and today’s Slovakia were then in the borders of Hungary).

8. In the battle of Varna fought also a detachment of Croatians, in the lead of Franko Talovac (then Croatia was also in the borders of Hungary).

9. Bosnia and Serbia remained aside from the events, related to the campaign in 1444. Leader of one of the Hungarian detachments was the Bosnian bishop Raphael Preki. There is no information about participation of Bosnians and Slovaks.

10. A detachment of Western knights, in the lead of the pope legate Giuliano Cesarini, also took part in the battle.


The mixed army during the second campaign in 1444, comprised about 20 000 soldiers.

The Turkish army numbered 55 000 – 60 000 people and was under command of Sultan Murad II.

More than the half of the King’s army died on the battlefield (about 10 000 soldiers) and the enemy suffered twice more victims.

Near Varna died the 20-year-old King Wladyslaw.

The commander- in chief Yanosh Huniady withdrew with the other outfit of the army.


Park-museum of military friendship 1444 Vladislav Varnwnchik © 2010. All rights reserved.